Unnamed forest stream in North Sumatra, Indonesia
Volume of aquarium: 45L
Dimensions of aquarium: 60x40x20x18 cm
List of fishes: Betta rubra(Perugia,1893)
List of plants: The emerged part Chamaedorea Spp. Dryopteris filix-mas, moss.
Description of Decorations and Substrate: Natural peat from the forest, dried roots gathered from the forest, magnolia leaves, dried leaves of Chamaedorea Spp., Dryopteris filix-mas leaves, moss.
Description of Equipment: External filter SunSun HW-603B, 400 l/h; Suspended led lamp 50w, color temperature 6500k, 4 color spectrum.
Water Parameters: Temperature 26°C, Ph 5, GH3, KH3
Additional Info: I never change water, just fill up the evaporated water weekly.
Description of the Area Surrounding the Biotope: North Sumatra is a province of Indonesia located on the northern part of Sumatra Island. Its capital and largest city is Medan. North Sumatra is the fourth most-populated province after West Java, East Java and Central Java. The province covers an area of 72,981 km2. In 2021, the province had a population of 15.136.522, with a density of 207.40 people/km.
The province presents a broad, low plain along the Strait of Malacca on which the provincial capital, Medan, is located. In the south and west, the land rises to the mountain range that runs the length of Sumatra; the mountains here are dominated by Lake Toba, created by the caldera of an ancient volcano. Several large islands in the Indian Ocean, off the west coast of Sumatra, are currently part of North Sumatra, most notably Nias Island and the Batu Islands. All the rivers in North Sumatra flow into the Indian Ocean.
Description of the Underwater Landscape of the Biotope: The height of the water is 15 cm; the color of the water is black due to the peat used as a substrate. The leaves that are in the water are not sucked and are left to decompose.
Description of the Habitat Parameters: The parameters are the same as in similar habitats in the area. The water is colored brown/red and is rich in tannin, due to the bottom of the stream made of peat and leaves. The pH is 5 – 5.5. The temperature is maintained at 26 °C.
List of Fishes and Invertebrates Occurring in the Nature Biotope: No species of fish or invertebrates have been remarked in the region. Betta rubra is the only specie noticed in this forest stream.
List of Plants Found in the Nature Biotope: Underwater plants: from the video showing the natural habitat, can be seen in the water: Cryptocoryne sp. and perennials such as Chamaedorea Spp, Dryopteris filix-mas, Hevea brasiliensis, moss, etc.
Threats to the Ecology of the Biotope: The habitat of Betta rubra is in danger of being destroyed in the near future due to the people oil palm crops that are extending more and more.
Sources of Information: