Shallow part of the marginal zone of the Abakan channel of the Yenisei River, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

_ place in Biotope Aquarium Design Contest 2019

Volume: 750 L
Dimensions: 150х100х50 cm
List of fishes: Leuciscus leuciscus
List of plants: Ceratiphylum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Potamogeten perfoliatus
Description of decorations: In my aquarium, I used materials directly taken from this biotope. These are rounded river stones of various sizes, ranging from pebbles, with a fraction of 5-10 mm, ending with boulders of 40 cm or more. The roots of the trees, mainly poplar and willow. A small amount of sludge was also used as food for plants. Volcanic lava (fraction 10-40 mm) is used as a substrate to raise the level of soil.
Description of equipment: SAMP 380 l .:
Filter material (150 l.):
– Mechanical filtration – large and finely porous sponges;
– Biological filtration – Bioballs Noname, Eheim Substrat Pro, volcanic lava.
Lifting pump – Eheim 1260, 2300 l / h.
An optional submersible mechanical filter is Unistar PowerHead 300-4L, 2000 l / h with a fine-porous foam sponge.
Heater with thermostat – Eheim Jager 300 W.
Lighting – Jazzway PFL-SC-50W 6500K floodlight.
Water parameters: Temperature – 28⁰С
pH – 7.0
gH – 6.0
Additional info: At the moment, the age of the aquarium is 2 months, there are no particular features of maintenance of this aquarium, only frequent trimming of long-stemmed fast-growing plants. The aquarium is stable, water changes 30-40% of the total volume 1 time per week. Fry of Leuciscus leuciscus very well eats frozen foods, such as small bloodworms and cyclops. Over the period of keeping, fry growth is noticeable.

INFORMATION ABOUT BIOTOPE

Description of the area surrounding the biotope: Yenisei is a river in Siberia, one of the longest and most full-flowing rivers of the world and Russia. It flows into the Kara Sea of ​​the Arctic Ocean. Length – 3487 km, catchment area – 2,580,000 km²., The natural border between Western and Eastern Siberia. The left bank of the Yenisei ends the great West Siberian plain, and the right bank represents the kingdom of the mountain taiga. From the Sayans to the Arctic Ocean, the Yenisei passes through all the climatic zones of Siberia. The Yenisei begins from the city of Kyzyl (the Republic of Tuva), where the Great Yenisei and Small Yenisei merge. The height of the source is 619.5 m above sea level. Yenisei in the area of ​​the cities of Krasnoyarsk, Divnogorsk, Sayanogorsk stopped freezing after the construction of the Krasnoyarsk and Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power stations. The extended ice-free part below Krasnoyarsk can be up to five hundred kilometers long. The climate became milder and the air more humid, thanks to the huge amount of water that accumulates in the Krasnoyarsk reservoir. The Abakan canal itself is located within the city of Krasnoyarsk, separating the Island of Rest (the second largest (after the Tatyshev Island) island on the Yenisei River in the city) from the right southern bank of the Yenisei. Rest Island is the warmest place in the Krasnoyarsk agglomeration. In the cold season after the creation of the reservoir, the average temperature of the winter months became 2.0-4.0 ° C higher, and in the summer months it decreased by 1.0-2.0 ° C on average. Warm water is discharged into the Abakan canal through the scattering outlet of direct-flow circulating water supply for the Krasnoyarsk CHP-2. What affects the water temperature in the channel itself – 28-30 ° C, in contrast to the temperature in the river. Yenisei, in which even in the hottest time of the year it does not warm up above 10⁰С. The formation of the low-temperature regime of the Yenisei river itself is affected by the cold waters of the Krasnoyarsk reservoir and is also influenced by numerous fast, small-length tributaries of the mountain and semi-mountain type, carrying cold water to the Yenisei. Back in the mid 70’s a dam was erected on the Abakan duct during the laying of the duker from the Krasnoyarsk CHP-2 on the left bank, which was put into operation in December 1979. Water from the Yenisei enters the channel through only one water supply system, which is constantly clogged with garbage. This is absolutely not enough to ensure that water does not silt there. Again, this also played a huge role in increasing the temperature in the duct due to the almost complete absence of flow in the duct due to the dam. But all these facts made it possible for this amazing biotope to be unusual for the Yenisei.

Description of the underwater landscape of the biotope: The length of the Abakan channel is about 5 km. Stony-pebble soils prevail in the channel, occupying up to 95% of the total area of ​​the bottom of the channel, in the coastal zone there are short-circuited zones. Water level is stable (1988 and 2006 flood exceptions). Due to the practically absent current, high temperature, and high nutrient content, there are abundant algal fouling on the substrate and abundant thickets of aquatic long-stemmed plants, which gave home and shelter to a huge number of fry, including Leuciscus leuciscus. A feature of this biotope is that it is dominated by invasive species of aquatic plants, native to North and South America (such as Ceratophylum demersum, Myriophyllum cf. aquaticum “Red Stem”, Elodea Canadensis, Egeria densa) and Africa (Pistia stratiotes). The only species of aquatic plants that are characteristic of the Yenisei River Basin is Potamogeten perfoliatus.

Description of the parameters of the habitat: The transparency of water in the hot summer period does not exceed one meter. Due to the presence of a dam, which significantly reduced the flow and year-round discharge of warm water from CHP-2, the temperature in the duct during the summer period is about 28-30 ° C, and at the discharge itself, even in winter the water does not drop below 14-15 ° C. pH 7.5; gH-8.0.

List of fishes and invertebrates occurring in the nature biotope: Abramis brama
Carassius carassius
Perca fluviatilis
Cyprinus carpio
Gymnocephalus cernuus
Rutilus rutilus lacustris
Esox lucius
Leuciscus leuciscus

List of plants found in the nature biotope: Ceratophylum demersum
Myriophyllum cf. aquaticum “Red Stem”
Potamogeten perfoliatus
Elodea Canadensis
Egeria densa
Pistia stratiotes

Threats to the ecology: The very presence of this, although interesting biotope in the Abakan canal, in fact, is a great environmental disaster. This is the result of often unreasoned human actions: starting with elementary carelessness and irresponsibility – people resting on the banks of the Abakan canal leave mountains of garbage after themselves (due to aesthetic considerations, they were not used in the design of the aquarium, such elements inherent in this biotope as cigarette packs and cigarette butts, beer cans and bottles, disposable barbecues and disposable tableware and other related elements of “outdoor enthusiasts”

Sources of information:
https://vk.com/brbrzz?w=wall293305461_85
https://vk.com/brbrzz?w=wall293305461_84
Computer identifier of fish in Russia (freshwater and migratory) (on a CD for PC). Bogolyubov A.S., Kravchenko M.V. Moscow, Ecosystem, 2010.
https%3A%2F%2Fwww.bylkov.ru%2Fforum%2F48-585-117&el=snippet
http://museum.krasfond.ru/library/geologicheskij-ocherk-okrestnostej-g-krasnoyarska/101-fiziko-geograficheskij-ocherk-i-orogidrografiya-rajona.html https://vk.com/video-23543049_456246036?list=dd47f01c105f888694 https://www.rfbr.ru/rffi/portal/project_search/o_294638 http://turczaninowia.asu.ru/article/view/693 https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9E%D1%81%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2_%D0%9E%D1%82%D0%B4%D1%8B%D1%85%D0%B0 https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9E%D1%81%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2_%D0%9E%D1%82%D0%B4%D1%8B%D1%85%D0%B0 https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%8F%D1%80%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%A2%D0%AD%D0%A6-2 https://www.kraskompas.ru/doma-i-ulitsy/orientiry-krasnoyarska/item/1292-mikrorajon-pashennyj.html https://fish.krasu.ru/enisey/index_en.php3?en1.htm http://krsk.sibnovosti.ru/ekologiya/353098-eksperty-rasskazali-o-prichinah-ekologicheskogo-bedstviya-na-abakanskoy-protoke https://www.meteovesti.ru/news/63698029537-enisej-lider-zagryazneniyu-ledovitogo-okeana http://www.tipazheleznogorsk.narod.ru/ghk4.html https://scienceforum.ru/2011/article/2011000591

Comments of the members of the jury of Biotope Aquarium Design Contest 2019