Roadside channel in the forest near the southern border of the Kedrovaya Pad reserve, Primorye, Russia

_ place in Biotope Aquarium Design Contest 2019

Volume: 25 L
Dimensions: 41х25х25 cm
List of fishes: Bombina orientalis
List of plants: Athyrium filix-femina, Hylocomium splendens, Dicranum polysetum, Plagiomnium sp., Polytrichum sp., Ptilidium ciliare, Cladonia sp., Cladonia rangiferina
Description of decorations: Fine beige sand, granite boulders of different sizes, flat white and gray pebbles, dry branches, pine cones
Description of equipment: LEDDY TUBE SUNNY 6W
Water parameters: Temperature 24 degrees C, pH 6.5, KH 3, GH 2, NO3 30 mg/l
Additional information: This aquaterrarium was created as a part of the Amphibian exhibition project in order to familiarize visitors with Bombina orientalis, as well as with the behavior of this species. Bombina orientalis reproduces in all studies quite a long time ago and successfully. This species is very popular among amphibian lovers, because it has an attractive appearance, interesting behavior, a pleasant voice, small size (4-5 cm), which allows keeping these amphibians, and they live long: 15-20 years. In this terrarium they seem to feel good, demonstrate mating behavior, although this group is still too young to reproduce, their age is a little over a year. In the exhibition terrarium we did not use a filter and changed 50% of the water twice a week. However, in conditions of greater depth, in which they previously lived, an airlift filter was used, which is most suitable for amphibians inhabiting stagnant water bodies. It is also important that the terrarium has a lid, because it can easily be removed from an open aquarium. In the stationary terrarium, we use ultraviolet lamps and do not add vitamins and minerals to the feeding in order to maintain the health of amphibians.

INFORMATION ABOUT BIOTOPE

Description of the area surrounding the biotope: Kedrovaya Pad State Nature Reserve, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences is located on the territory of the Khasansky district of the Primorsky Territory. The geographical coordinates of the reserve are 43006 / – 43010 / north latitude, 131023 / – 131035 / east longitude. The relief of the reserve is formed by two main mountain ranges: Gakkelevsky and Sukhorechensky, which are the extreme northeastern spurs of the Black Mountains (Chanbaishan), the main massifs of which are located in China and Korea. The tops of the ranges are relatively low: 600-700 m above sea level. For this part of the Far East, a monsoon climate is characteristic. Compared to the entire territory of Primorye, the reserve’s climate is somewhat milder due to its southern location and proximity to the sea. Winters are relatively mild, sunny, although in January the temperature sometimes drops to -40°C. The average January temperature is –13°C, and August –21°C. The first half of summer is cool, with frequent prolonged rains and drizzle, the second one is hot, with high tropical humidity up to 100% at temperatures up to +40°C. In August and September, dry sunny weather alternates with cruel tropical typhoons, during which the water in the river rises two to three meters. At the same time, the climate has its own climatic features, which differ even from the surrounding territories. The Kedrovaya River Valley facing the sea, bordered by high ridges, acts as a wind tunnel, drawing moist sea air into the valley. When cooling down on the forest slopes, the moisture condenses, and therefore fog often hangs over the valley even when sunny weather is around the reserve. Most of the reserve’s territory is occupied by forests: mountain black-fir-broad-leaved, cedar-broad-leaved, fir-broad-leaved, and others. The plants species diversity is great: 918 species of vascular plants, 179 of bryophytes, 273 species of freshwater algae, 250 species of lichens and 1804 species of mushrooms, some species are listed in the Red Book of the RSFSR. The reserve has many species of insects, birds, 54 species of mammals, 12 species of fish, 7 species of reptiles and 7 species of amphibians. Of the water bodies, the most famous is the mountain river Kedrovaya, into which many streams and tributaries flow. In addition, in the forest and along the roads there are many standing ponds, ditches, shaded by trees and plants growing along the banks, which Bombina orientalis prefer. Other amphibian species are also found in the same territory: Bufo gargarizans, Rana chensinensis, Hynobius keyserling. Fish in such stagnant bodies of water do not occur as a rule, but there are a lot of aquatic insects and larvae of insects living near water, many serve as food for toads.

Description of the underwater landscape of the biotope: The ditch is located in the zone of coniferous-deciduous forests, so on the banks and in the water you can see needles, cones, branches, fragments of bark, mosses and lichens growing along the banks.

Description of the parameters of the habitat: The water is slightly cloudy due to the yellowish-brown mountainous soils in the region, and may have different colors depending on the amount of leaf litter in the water. The temperature in the summer can reach 24 degrees C, in the winter the ditch freezes.

List of fishes and invertebrates occurring in the nature biotope: Bombina orientalis, Bufo gargarizans, Rana chensinensis, Hynobius keyserling

List of plants found in the nature biotope: Chloranhus japonicus, Poligonatum inflatum, Aralia continentalis, Betula schmidtii, Hylocomium splendens, Dicranum polysetum, Ptilidium ciliare

Threats to the ecology: the Far Eastern toad is not a protected species, but in general, the problems of protecting amphibians in Primorye are divided into three main areas: the protection of the Red Book species, the identification of anthropogenic impacts on natural populations of amphibians, the search for ways to stop the illegal harvesting and export of the Far Eastern frog to the countries of the Southeast region. It is necessary to develop methods for culture of amphibians, both in order to preserve the number of their natural populations, and to conduct orderly trade with China and Korea, which at this time is widespread on an absolutely illegal basis.

Sources of information:
Distribution of Far Eastern toad:
https://amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?rel-common_name=like&rel-family=equals&rel-ordr=equals&rel-intro_isocc=like&rel-description=like&rel-distribution=like&rel-life_history=like&rel-trends_and_threats=like&rel-relation_to_humans=like&rel-comments=like&rel-submittedby=like&max=200&orderbyaw=Genus%2Bspecies&include_synonymies=Yes&show_photos=Yes&rel-scientific_name=contains&where-scientific_name=Bombina+orientalis&rel-genus=equals&where-genus=&rel-species=equals&where-species=&where-common_name=&where-clade=&where-subfamily=&where-family=any&where-ordr=any&rel-isocc=occurs+in&where-isocc=&rel-species_account=matchboolean&where-species_account=&rel-declinecauses=equals&where-declinecauses=&rel-iucn=begins+with&where-iucn=&rel-cites=equals&where-cites=&where-submittedby=
http://www.rus-nature.ru/12amf/15.htm
https://zooclub.ru/amfibii/beshvostye/dalnevostochnaja-zherlyanka.shtml
Definition of mosses and lichens:
http://www.rus-nature.ru/05moss/index.htm
http://www.rus-nature.ru/03lich/index.htm
Kedrovaya Pad State Nature Reserve:
http://kedrpad.dvo.ru/
https://docviewer.yandex.ru/view/10517997/?page=60&*=VfV%2B0cwrwrTQgHL%2B%2B6edlho1Ccp7InVybCI6InlhLWJyb3dzZXI6Ly80RFQxdVhFUFJySlJYbFVGb2V3cnVQU004MVpBaFFUSDVmWFZJdVFtQTg1UFBWQ0NfSVZnWml6ay1MNnpkZDNqMHdfT2lGVFlJYUo5SEpqemFfVHNzdjV1Q1l1VlZxNjdXUjQ1N2FTYWtPNl9lVG9MZXU5LWZUbmJtRUQtRHIyZ1ZpRmlScnVJaGIwSzhIRk14RUM5dkE9PT9zaWduPW5SM3ZRaUhvaTBXRE1qdG9xZVFxOWUzbWtWU1U0ODNCQm9TZ1ZXUlhSY289IiwidGl0bGUiOiLQm9C10YLQvtC%2F0LjRgdGMINCa0LXQtNGA0L7QstCw0Y8g0J%2FQsNC00YwgMjAwNi5kb2MiLCJub2lmcmFtZSI6ZmFsc2UsInVpZCI6IjEwNTE3OTk3IiwidHMiOjE1NjQ4MjMyMTUzNjQsInl1IjoiNTc0NjE2ODQzMTQ4MzgwMDYzNiJ9
http://kedrpad.dvo.ru/letipis/%D0%9B%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%8C%20%D0%9A%D0%B5%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%8F%20%D0%9F%D0%B0%D0%B4%D1%8C%202007.doc
Toad video in nature:

Comments of the members of the jury of Biotope Aquarium Design Contest 2019