River Ucayali, Arequipa Region, Peru

17th place in Biotope Aquarium Design Contest 2017

brazil Brazil. Flavio Henard Jorge de Freitas

Volume: 144 L
Dimensions: 80x45x40 cm
List of fishes: Paracheirodon Innesi, Carnegiella strigata, Corydora trilineatus, Apistogramma agassizii and Nannostomus trifasciatus.
List of plants: Pistia stratiotes and Limnobium.
Description of decorations: Use of woods, driftwoods, branches, leaves and fine white sand to approximate to the maximum the aspect of the place that was represented. The proposal was to reproduce some of the larger roots with branches fallen around them, where the fish hides and dances between as their openings. As typically floating plants that lie on the right bank of the river, they complement the sensation of the Amazonian environment where water presents a yellow / brown color, soft and acidic by the presence of organic material (derived from leaves, branches, trunks, roots, etc.) on its light-colored soil.
Description of equipment: External filter Eheim ECCO Pro, LED LIGHT 70 W
Water parameters: Temperature 27 ° C, kH – 1, GH- 0, PH – 6.4.

Description of the area surrounding the biotope: According to the Wikipedia “The Ucayali River (Spanish: Ucayali River, IPA: [ri.o ukaʝali]) arises about 110 km (68 mi) north of Lake Titicaca, in the Arequipa region of Peru. The Amazon River takes its name close to Nauta city (100 km upstream / south of Iquitos), at the confluence of the Marañón and Ucayali rivers. The Ucayali becomes a major tributary of the Amazon River. Navigation was blocked by lengthy sections of rapids. The city of Pucallpa is located on the banks of the Ucayali. The Ucayali, together with Apurimac River, Ene River, and Tambo River, is today considered the main headwater of the Amazon River, totaling a length of 2,669.9 kilometers (1,659.0 mi) from the source of the Apurimac at Nevado Mismi to the confluence of the Ucayali and Marañón Rivers:
• Apurímac River (total length): 730.7 km (454.0 mi)
• Ene River (total length): 180.6 km (112.2 mi)
• Tambo River (total length): 158.5 km (98.5 mi)
• Ucayali River (confluence with Tambo River to confluence with the Marañón): 1,600.1 km (994.3 mi)
The Ucayali was first called San Miguel, then Ucayali, Ucayare, Poro, Apu-Poro, Cocama and Rio de Cuzco. Peru has fitted out many costly and ably-conducted expeditions to explore it. One of them (1867) claimed to have reached within 380 km (240 mi) of Lima, and the little steamer “Napo” forced its way up the violent currents for 124 km (77 mi) above the junction with the Pachitea River as far as the Tambo River, 1,240 km (770 mi) from the confluence of the Ucayali with the Amazon. The “Napo” then succeeded in ascending the Urubamba branch of the Ucayali 56 km (35 mi) above its union with the Tambo, to a point 320 km (200 mi) north of Cuzco.
The remainder of the Urubamba, as shown by Bosquet in 1806 and Castelnau in 1846, is interrupted by cascades, reefs, and numberless other obstacles to navigation. Torres, who explored the Alto Ucayali for the Peruvian government, gives it a length of 186 miles (299 km), counting from the mouth of the Pachitea to the junction of Tambo and Urubamba. Its width varies from 400-1,200 meters (1,300-3,900 ft), due to the great number of islands. The current runs from 5-6 kilometers per hour (3.1-3.7 mph), and a channel from 20-50 meters (66-164 ft) wide can always be found with a minimum depth of 1.5 m (4.9 ft). There are five bad passes, due to the accumulation of trees and rafts of timber. Sometimes enormous rocks have fallen from the mountains and spread over the river-bed, causing huge whirlpools.
Ucayali is home to the Amazon river dolphin, giant otter, and the Amazonian manatee, which are abundant in Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, close to Nauta. The southeastern border of the reserve is formed by the lower Ucayali River.
The river gives its name to the Ucayali Region of Peru and Ucayali Province of the Loreto Region.”

Description of the underwater landscape of the biotope: According to the studied studies of the place reproduced, a typical Amazonian environment, but located in the upper Amazonas, Peru, with a dense forest, quite a lot of trees, roots, leaves, branches, light and fine sand, with water slightly browned by the presence of the mentioned organic material.

Description of the parameters of the habitat: According to the studies carried out of the place reproduced, a typical Amazonian environment, however, located in the upper Amazonas, Peru, I will cite the parameters as quoted in a study published by the “Ministry of the Environment” of Peru between 2002 and 2006: Flow rate (m3 / s): min 3171 max 178822, Temperature (° C): min 25.9 ° max 29.4 °, CE (uS / cm): min 63.8 max 356, Turbidity: 244, PH: min 6.4 max 7.3

List of fishes: Corydoras panda,Corydoras trilineatus, Copella nattereri, Carnegiella hatchetfish, Carnegiella strigata, Paracheirodon innesi, Nannostomus trifasciatus, Thayeria boehlkei, Hyphessobrycon frankei, Hyphessobrycon loretoensis, Hyphessobrycon peruvianus, Moenkhausia margitae, Crenicara punctulatum, Apistogrammoides pucallpaensis, Apistogramma cacatuoides, Apistogramma agassizii, Apistogramma cf. eunotus, Apistogramma njisseni, Planiloricaria cryptodon, Otocinclus cocama, Ancistrus sp  and other fish in the links mentioned in the entry.

List of plants: Include Limnobium, Azolla caroliniana and Pistia stratioides. An example of photo: http://www.amazonian-fish.co.uk/images/floating_plants.jpg

Threats to the ecology: Considered one of the “mother” rivers of the amazon river, the Ucayali and its biotopes (as well as some rivers of the Amazon basin) are in degradation. The construction of large water dams, the rampant exploration of oil, the extraction of precious / heavy metals, and even the local capture and fishing of the riverside inhabitants when uncontrolled and conscious, slowly annihilates the local population of the specimens.

Sources of information: