Endangered Ecosystem In Ciliwung’s Shallow Water At Cibinong, Bogor – Indonesia
_th place in Biotope Aquarium Design Contest 2020
Volume: 70 liter
Dimensions: 72x28x40 cm
List of fishes: Puntius binotatus, Nemacheilus chrysolaimos, Macrobrachium lanchesteri
List of plants: chaetomorpha SP (for food)
Description of decorations: This Aquarium is displayed to show the beauty of Ciliwung river and to aware public for starting to preserve it. As a replica of Ciliwung river landscape, the material decoration is obtained from Ciliwung itself, such as rounded river stone, river sand who has filtered from mud, the fall tree leaves, stale bamboo branch and leaves. The most important is bamboo branch because it dominate the actual river bank. The branch who has fall into the river become fish’s shelter.
Not only replicate the original ecosystem, the decoration also consider fish and shrimp character. The stone put vertically as a hiding place for Nemacheilus chrysolaimos and Macrobrachium lanchesteri. To accomodate Puntius binotatus character, provided a long swimming area in front of aquarium, a big stone at corner for rounding schooling, as well as for aesthetic factor.
The depth of the water in biotope aquarium is kept at 25 cm. This is imitating the condition of river bank which Puntius Binotatus and Nemacheilus chrysolaimos usually roaming. This depth has an equation of the length of human knee.
Description of equipment: Lamp use LED Yamano 50cm 9W. Filter use Boyu Submerge 9 W 400L/H. Cooling system use Fan 12 V 0,6A. The lamp produce well-distributed light but shady. This also replicate the light condition in Ciliwung river which dominated by high and dense bamboo population. The power of water circulation make the flow is slow but produce water bubble that good for fish.
Water parameters: Temperature 27-30°C
PH 7,2, GH 100, KH 80, NITRAT 1, NITRIT 0 (reagent strips)
Additional info: The use of fan in the night helping temperature reduction until 27°C. As daily food provided rice bran sereal, and once per three day frozen blood worm chironomus SP and little moss chaetomorpha SP provided. The water is changed once per week at 25% volume.
The clearness of water is kept by giving little bit river moss that produce by decomposition of leaves. The real nature of biotope actually is a beautiful river system. This fact was obtained for literature and interview for the local. It such a right way to present Ciliwung river biotope aquarium in the beautiful way, without pollutant and mud, as told by the history.
The character of fish in biotope aquarium such as: Puntius binotatus is active swimmer and fill the lower part to roaming sand and stone. Nemacheilus chrysolaimos is self conscious, prefer to hiding under the stone and only go out for searching food. Macrobrachium lanchesteri is detritivore which eat the waste of fish food. In turn, if it die or nest will become additional food for fish, as well known as food chain.
Macrobrachium lanchesteri is an invasive species, and as literature said, that organism is an indicator about the chemical pollution that happened in Ciliwung river. If the river in good condition, Macrobrachium lanchesteri can be found easily but if it is hard to find so there is problem in water condition because it is very sensitive about chemical condition in the water.
INFORMATION ABOUT BIOTOPE
Description of the area surrounding the biotope: Ciliwung is 119 km long with a catchment area of 476 km2. The Ciliwung river has its source at Mandalawangi in Bogor Regency with the highest peak at 3,002 m. The river flows in a northern direction passing several active volcanoes, crosses two main cities Bogor and Jakarta before finally flowing into the Java Sea through Jakarta Bay. Mean rainfall reaches 3,125 mm, with mean annual discharge of 16 m3/s as measured at Ciliwung Ratujaya observation station (231 km2). With such topographical, geological and hydrological features the Ciliwung river is often overflowing and inundating parts of Jakarta. The population along the Ciliwung river basin reaches 4.088 million (Census 2000) which can be regarded as the most densely populated area. (Wikipedia)
The environment that represent in biotope aquarium located in northern side which have the river flow to Jakarta. The exact point is 6°30’13.5″S 106°47’52.9″E coordinate.
This river flow in the middle of vast settlement, which separate Cibinong and Bojonggede. Along the riverbank is full by dense and shady bamboo. There are also sediment rock, clay and sand.
In the shallow zone with slow flow because full of rock, bamboo fall and waste there live Puntius binotatus, Nemacheilus chrysolaimos and Macrobrachium lanchesteri.
Description of the underwater landscape of the biotope: The condition of river is flowing with sand mixed with mud and rock in the bottom area. Dominated by round rock. In the area that received sun light grows chaetomorpha SP
Description of the parameters of the habitat: Overall the habibat parameter always change along with season and pollutant intensity. The research data that known is the water sample when the dry season come in Cibinong area (Jembatan Sukahati) is: temperature 25-30, turbidity of water 10 NTU, TSS 60(mg/L), TDS 90 (mg/L), PH 7.8, DO 3,5(mg/L), BOD 1.50 (mg/L), COD 20.00 (mg/L), Nitrat 1 (mg/L), Nitrit 0,4 (mg/L), Amonia 0 (mg/L), fosfat 0,30 (mg/L)
List of fishes and invertebrates occurring in the nature biotope: Fish that lives in Ciliwung river biotope area based on the local fisherman is: puntius binotatus, nemacheilus chrysolaimos, barbonymus gonionotus, hampala macrolepidota, channa striata, hemibagrus nemurus, clarias batrachus, monopterus albus, carassius auratus*, cyprinus carpio*, ctenopharyngodon idella*, poecilia reticulata*, gambusia affinis*, xiphophorus hellerii*, oreochromis niloticus*, oreochromis mossambicus*, aequidens rivulatus*, clarias cf.gariepinus*, pterygoplichthys pardalis*
Crustacea: parathelphusa convexa, Macrobrachium lanchesteri*
For this moment invasive species becomes most dominant and endemic fish is hard to find.
List of plants found in the nature biotope: In the area that received sun light grows chaetomorpha SP
Threats to the ecology: For more than century, 92,5% endemic fish species in Ciliwung has gone. In 1910, the freshwater fish that lived there reached 187 species. For more than century later, 2009 for the exact data, it has drastically decreased until 20 species. Ilegal fishing with poison, pollutant and the increase of environment temperature are the main reason of it.
Nowaday, the river has polluted by plastic, organic and domestic waste. The literature say 300 ton waste accumulate in Ciliwung daily. The change of upstream land, deforestation and reduction of water infiltration because human settlement make Ciliwung is familiar with flood. Flood is inevitable, destroying ecosystem and fill the river with mud and waste.
Moreover, the sand and rock mining oftenly happened so the beauty of river is disappear.
Strange biota species also become another problem. Now it dominates river and make natural forcing. The good example of this is pterygoplichthys pardalis which very strong to chemical waste but can destroy river bank. Oreochromis niloticus, oreochromis mossambicus and clarias cf.gariepinus is dangered for endemic fish population. Macrobrachium lanchesteri from Southern Thailand also force the local species Macrobrachium sintangese into colder side of river. Now that species has become claimed the indicator of water quality and Ciliwung ecosystem.
Ciliwung at Cibinong, Bogor Regency is the last showcase of its natural beauty and the vastness biota. After 40km to Jakarta, it has reduce until there is no one to find.
Sources of information: Ciliwung river landscape, Cibinong and Bojonggede border.
Water parameter Ciliwung Cibinong Bogor:
The condition of water in the past
The reference of Ecology threat and endemic fish extinction, waste and invasive species:
Macrobrachium lanchesteri as the indicator of water quality and Ciliwung ecosystem